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Environmental Justice Movements in India: An analysis of the multiple manifestations of violence.

By Brototi Roy and Joan Martinez-Alier.


With each passing year, defending land and water, livelihoods and cultures appears to become more violent. Against the alarming number of murders of environmental activists or environmental defenders, which is the easiest way to recognize violence, this article aims to analyse other visible and invisible ways in which violence is manifested. Using a multidimensional approach and referring to case studies from the EJAtlas and other sources, it looks at the multiple manifestations of violence. It concludes that a south-south collaboration in academic-activist coproduced research on environmental justice movements would shed light on realities which often escape mainstream ecological economics and political ecology.


EJAtlas, ecological distribution conflicts, multidimensional violence, environmental justice movements, political ecology



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This article is part of the SPECIAL SECTION: Ecological Distribution Conflicts in India in Ecology, Economy and Society–the INSEE Journal2(1): 77–92, January 2019

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