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Greenwash

The term ‚ÄėGreenwash‚Äô was coined by environmental activists to denounce misleading advertising campaigns made by industrial corporations to depict themselves as more environmentally friendly and ecologically conscious than they actually …

Corporate social responsibility (CSR)

The belief that business has a social responsibility is not new. In the early decades of the twentieth century a few large industrialists, including Ford and Carnegie, engaged in corporate …

Polluter pays principle

The ‚Äėpolluter pays‚Äô principle is an environmental policy principle which requires that the costs of pollution be borne by those who cause it. The ‚Äėpolluter pays‚Äô principle is normally implemented …

Economic Valuation

Economists value the environment placing a monetary value on the basis of perceived ‚Äėgoods‚Äė and ‚Äôbads‚Äė arising from changes in environmental quality or resource availability. The rationale for the economic …

Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)

In the broadest sense, the term Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) refers to a system of incentives to preserve ecosystems and biodiversity through recognition of the vital services provided for …

GDP of the Poor

GDP and the environment in developing countries Standard GDP (gross domestic product) statistics are unable to take into account the real livelihood basis of many poor sectors of the world population, …

Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem goods and services Humans have always depended on nature for environmental assets like clean water, nutrient cycling and soil formation. These have been called by different names through human history, …

Uncertainty

The notion of ‚Äėuncertainty‚Äô is used in many scientific fields, often encompassing a multiplicity of related concepts. In broad terms, uncertainty may be defined as being any deviation from the …

Scenarios and visioning

Prospective, forward-looking studies include a vast range of concepts and approaches, which aim at exploring plausible and/or preferable futures to improve decision-making processes. Examples of methods used in futures studies …

Popular epidemiology

Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution of disease or physiological conditions in human populations and the factors that influence their distribution. Popular epidemiology, therefore, refers to when the lay public …