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Ecological footprint

Definition and methodology Widely used by scientists, businesses, governments, agencies, civil society organisations and individuals working to monitor ecological resource use and advance sustainability, the ecological footprint (EF) represents the amount …

Co-management

Many traditional societies formed ‚Äď and still form ‚Äď relatively closed systems in which natural resources are managed through complex interplays of reciprocities and solidarities. Forms of collective possession and …

Natural capital depletion tax

Sustainability requires maintaining so-called natural capital intact, or at least, slowing down its loss while waiting for positive technological changes and peak human population. In order to achieve this, an …

Ecological rucksacks (hidden flows)

An ecological rucksack is defined as the total quantity (in kg) of materials removed from nature to create a product or service, minus the actual weight of the product. It …

Access and use rights

Among the institutional arrangements regulating human‚Äďnature relationships, rights and obligations to natural resources, and access and use rights play a crucial role (Bromley, 1991; Ostrom and Schlager, 1996; Van Griethuysen, …

Common-pool resources

According to Ostrom (2008), scholars are still in the process of developing a shared language for the broad set of things called ‚Äėthe commons‚Äô. There is frequently confusion about similarities …

Ecological Economics

Broad definition Ecological economics has been compared to human ecology (Martinez-Alier, 1998), which instead of resorting to a single unit of account ‚Äď money ‚Äď includes the biophysical aspects of economic …

Political Ecology

Description of the field Political ecology analyses social forms and human organisation that interact with the environment. This burgeoning field has attracted scholars from the fields of anthropology, forestry, development studies, …

Environmental (in)justice

Background and definitions The concept of environmental injustice arose from the fact that some communities or human groups are disproportionately subjected to higher levels of environmental risk than other segments of …

Discounting the future

For the purposes of investors, interest rates, impatience and risk necessitate that future costs and benefits are converted into present value in order to make them comparable with each other. …

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