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Green accounting

‚ÄėGreen accounting‚Äô is the popular term for environmental and natural resource accounting, which incorporates environmental assets and their source and sink functions into national and corporate accounts (see Bartelmus, 2008, …

New ecological macroeconomics

Recently, courageous, influential and practical attempts to bring together the analysis of ecology, economy and social behaviour in rich economies have begun to emerge. Particularly noteworthy is Tim Jackson‚Äôs book …

Cultural capital

The term ‚Äėcultural capital‚Äô is used in the sense presented in the work of Berkes and Folke (1994) who make a distinction of a complex capital system with three components: …

Greenwash

The term ‚ÄėGreenwash‚Äô was coined by environmental activists to denounce misleading advertising campaigns made by industrial corporations to depict themselves as more environmentally friendly and ecologically conscious than they actually …

Corporate social responsibility (CSR)

The belief that business has a social responsibility is not new. In the early decades of the twentieth century a few large industrialists, including Ford and Carnegie, engaged in corporate …

Polluter pays principle

The ‚Äėpolluter pays‚Äô principle is an environmental policy principle which requires that the costs of pollution be borne by those who cause it. The ‚Äėpolluter pays‚Äô principle is normally implemented …

Economic Valuation

Economists value the environment placing a monetary value on the basis of perceived ‚Äėgoods‚Äė and ‚Äôbads‚Äė arising from changes in environmental quality or resource availability. The rationale for the economic …

Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)

In the broadest sense, the term Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) refers to a system of incentives to preserve ecosystems and biodiversity through recognition of the vital services provided for …

GDP of the Poor

GDP and the environment in developing countries Standard GDP (gross domestic product) statistics are unable to take into account the real livelihood basis of many poor sectors of the world population, …

Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem goods and services Humans have always depended on nature for environmental assets like clean water, nutrient cycling and soil formation. These have been called by different names through human history, …

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