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Joint forest management

Originating in the early 1970s, the concept of joint forest management (JFM) is the official and popular term in India and elsewhere for partnerships in forest management involving both the …

GDP accounting and critiques

Definition and methods Macroeconomic accounting establishes the size of the economy by measuring the Gross Domestic Product. It is called ‚Äėgross‚Äô, because the depreciation and amortisation of capital (deduction of capital …

Well-being

The term ‚Äėwell-being‚Äô is most commonly used to describe what is ultimately good for a person. The question of what well-being consists of is of great importance for various disciplines, …

Public participation in environmental decision-making

There is a growing body of literature on public participation in environmental assessment and decision-making, within which several authors (e.g. Antunes et al., 2009; NRC, 2008) have proposed a set …

Institutions

Contrary to standard economic theory emphasising the role of individuals, ecological economists such as Daniel Bromley (2006) or Arild Vatn (2005) have highlighted the prominent role of institutions in shaping …

Tragedy of the Commons: Hardin’s mistake

‚ÄėThe Tragedy of the Commons‚Äô stems from Garrett Hardin‚Äôs influential article of 1968 in which he referred to all common-pool natural resources that were not government or privately owned. As …

Property rights

In standard economics, property rights refer to a bundle of entitlements defining an owner‚Äôs rights, privileges and limitations to the use of a resource. An efficient structure of property rights …

Externalities

Social costs ‚Äď or externalities, in the language of standard economics ‚Äď are harmful effects that are not internalized in the production costs of enterprises. Therefore, market prices do not …

Carbon trading

Launched through the Kyoto protocol in 1997, carbon trading is an approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for reduced emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon trading takes two …

Human energy use (endosomatic / exosomatic)

Ecological economists distinguish (following A. Lotka‚Äôs ideas) between ‚Äėendosomatic‚Äô and ‚Äėexosomatic‚Äô use of energy by humans. Inside the body, as food energy, adult humans spend per day between 1,500 and …

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