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Access and use rights

Among the institutional arrangements regulating human‚Äďnature relationships, rights and obligations to natural resources, and access and use rights play a crucial role (Bromley, 1991; Ostrom and Schlager, 1996; Van Griethuysen, …

Common-pool resources

According to Ostrom (2008), scholars are still in the process of developing a shared language for the broad set of things called ‚Äėthe commons‚Äô. There is frequently confusion about similarities …

Ecological Economics

Broad definition Ecological economics has been compared to human ecology (Martinez-Alier, 1998), which instead of resorting to a single unit of account ‚Äď money ‚Äď includes the biophysical aspects of economic …

Political Ecology

Description of the field Political ecology analyses social forms and human organisation that interact with the environment. This burgeoning field has attracted scholars from the fields of anthropology, forestry, development studies, …

Environmental (in)justice

Background and definitions The concept of environmental injustice arose from the fact that some communities or human groups are disproportionately subjected to higher levels of environmental risk than other segments of …

Discounting the future

For the purposes of investors, interest rates, impatience and risk necessitate that future costs and benefits are converted into present value in order to make them comparable with each other. …

Net Present Value (NPV)

The idea behind the net present value (NPV) is that EUR 1 today is worth more than EUR 1 in the future, because money available today can be invested and …

HANPP

Humans depend on land and the resources it provides for their subsistence. Plant biomass is one of the most important of these resources. Humans depend on it for: food directly …

Forest economics

This branch of applied economics is mainly focused on sustainable yield timber management, resource extraction and commodity production, excluding a wide range of forest values (local livelihood, ecological, aesthetic and …

Depopulation

‚ÄėDepopulation‚Äô refers to a process in which the population density of an area decreases steadily over time. Increased human population is certainly a threat to environmental sustainability, but local phenomena …

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