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Needs

Maslow‚Äôs pyramid The notion of needs was initially developed in the field of psychology by Abraham Maslow to explain individual motivation process (Maslow, 1943). His ‚Äėhierarchy of human needs‚Äô consisted of …

Funds and stocks

While conventional economics tries to approach natural resources through monetary means, ecological economics stresses the need to make the biogeochemical characteristics of resources explicit. This allows for a distinction between …

Customary rights and legal pluralism

‚ÄėCustomary rights‚Äô refer to established, traditional patterns of norms that can be observed within a particular socio-cultural setting (Thompson, 1991). Sets of customary rights and obligations may be called customary …

Joint forest management

Originating in the early 1970s, the concept of joint forest management (JFM) is the official and popular term in India and elsewhere for partnerships in forest management involving both the …

GDP accounting and critiques

Definition and methods Macroeconomic accounting establishes the size of the economy by measuring the Gross Domestic Product. It is called ‚Äėgross‚Äô, because the depreciation and amortisation of capital (deduction of capital …

Well-being

The term ‚Äėwell-being‚Äô is most commonly used to describe what is ultimately good for a person. The question of what well-being consists of is of great importance for various disciplines, …

Public participation in environmental decision-making

There is a growing body of literature on public participation in environmental assessment and decision-making, within which several authors (e.g. Antunes et al., 2009; NRC, 2008) have proposed a set …

Institutions

Contrary to standard economic theory emphasising the role of individuals, ecological economists such as Daniel Bromley (2006) or Arild Vatn (2005) have highlighted the prominent role of institutions in shaping …

Tragedy of the Commons: Hardin’s mistake

‚ÄėThe Tragedy of the Commons‚Äô stems from Garrett Hardin‚Äôs influential article of 1968 in which he referred to all common-pool natural resources that were not government or privately owned. As …

Property rights

In standard economics, property rights refer to a bundle of entitlements defining an owner‚Äôs rights, privileges and limitations to the use of a resource. An efficient structure of property rights …

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